MARKETING, INTERNET MARKETING AND ADVERTISING, HOW TO MARKETING ON THE
INTERNET, INTERNET ADVERTISING, LEAD
Business Marketing, Internet Marketing Business, Web Marketing, Leads,
B2B Marketing, Marketing, Advertising, Advertisement, Advertisements,
Advertising Site, Online Advertising, Internet Advertising, Online Marketing
INTERNET MARKETING, INTERNET ADVERTISING, LEAD GENERATION
Websites Don't Make Money Web Marketing Does!
SIMPLE, AFFORDABLE, FAST LOW COST HIGHLY EFFECTIVE INTERNET MARKETING,
INTERNET ADVERTISING, SMALL BUSINESS SOLUTIONS, I-Billboards
The world needs to know how INCREDIBLE YOU ARE!
THE BASICS IN INTERNET MARKETING:
I NEED MORE CUSTOMERS TO VISIT MY BUSINESS!
THE CONFUSION OF INTERNET MARKETING BY USING THE LEAD GENERATION
Let’s face it, the internet is very confusing. The
internet market is growing faster than any other market, perhaps
faster than any other market we’ve seen. The average business
owner is busy and doesn’t have time to learn, keep abreast
of developments and monitor the internet.
advertising like the yellow pages or the local newspaper are
quickly becoming a thing of the past. Neither reaches those
already shopping on the internet effectively. It’s not that
yellow pages or newspapers are bad, but market is constantly
internet is where people are searching for information on
products and services. Estimates are that 79% of purchase
decisions are researched on the internet.
the promise of growth and opportunity of the internet passing
you by? Is your website not generating sales activity? Perhaps
you haven’t invested in an internet presence. I-Billboards
offers a new way to get business on the internet. I-Billboards
are inexpensive, effective and do not require a large time
investment on your part.
have the experience in internet advertising and marketing.
It pays to hire us. I-Billboards.com has a track record of
success in generating leads and sales on the internet.
What our clients are saying:
RESULTS DAY AFTER DAY!
“Best internet marketing descision I ever made! I cannot believe
it. I started with I-Billboards about a year ago. Now, I am
getting calls from internet shoppers nearly every day of the
week and those calls have led to an additional $5,000 in new
business every two weeks! What is even more unbelievable is
that these results are during the slowest time of year. What
is notable about the system is the quality of the customers
that we’ve been reaching and attracting. This system is just
Larry - Auto Repair
SMILING ALL THE WAY TO THE BANK!
The lead generation system has become a critical piece of
my legal practice. I do wills, trusts and estate planning.
I know that the services I perform for my clients are invaluable.
When I meet with a client I am able to answer their questions
and fashion solutions to their unique circumstances. My clients
are delighted to have taken the time (finally) to take care
of their financial affairs. The key to my business is advertising
and reaching additional clients that need my services. Generally
the system has yielded a call every other day, sometimes a
call every day. This is the best advertising expenditure I
Tracy - Attorney At Law.
HAS CHANGED THE WAY I DO BUSINESS.
The lead generation machine has changed the way I do business.
When the housing market was flush and there was plenty of
work, I didn’t need to advertise. I worked for many large
builder/developers and they kept my business growing. When
the housing market slumped, I had to adapt. I was introduced
to the I-Billboard and it has delivered. Last year, 2009,
the I-Billboard generated $100,000 for my business. I have
pulled my yellow page ads and all other advertising. The only
advertising I do now is the I-Billboard. Jim - Electrician
OTHERS FLOUNDER, MY BUSINESS GROWS!
My handyman business will never be the same. Last year I invested
in the I-Billboard lead generation machine and got a call
a day. Now, I am getting almost two calls per day on average.
While others are struggling, I am growing and hiring more
help. Owen - Handyman
LET US SORT THROUGH THE CONFUSION
world needs to know
how Incredible you ARE!
experience is that every business has a story to tell
– every business has a purpose.
Let us help tell your story.
Why you entered the business?
What services you provide?
What you do differently than others?
What are the value-added services you provide?
Everyday we meet with business owners like yourself
and discuss their businesses. Some know specifically
what makes them Incredible
– many don’t. We learn what makes you incredible and
we share that with the world on the internet. We love
what we do everyday. We help grow small businesses."
Eric Brenn, President of
What is an I-Billboard? A simple, clear, concise message
relevant to your potential customers. In this case, consumers
that are already using the internet and shopping. We identify
consumers purchasing goods and services related to yours,
make your presence known to them and direct them to you.
not spammers, pay per click or even a search engine optimization
business. I-Billboards doesn't push unwanted ad materials,
instead it meets the consumer that is already shopping on
the internet, purchasing the goods and service you offer and
making you known to them.
are located at the Intersection
of Demand and Opportunity.
I-Billboards can identify niches that aren't being served.
By making you available to those consumers we can place you
ahead of the competition in that market.
are generally most effective in advertising goods and services
in a defined geographic region, but not always limited to
your locale. Internet markets are not necessarily geographic
and I-Billboards responds to new and emerging opportunities.
with I-Billboards, the consumers finds you. I-Billboards identifies
potential consumers based on their internet searches and requests,
uses that information to identify opportunities and places
your I-Billboard before them. The consumer selects you, calls
or e-mails and you respond directly to the consumer.
of all, I-Billboards are affordable - a one year subscription
is less than the costs of a leaflet or flyer campaign. Have
an existing website? No problem. Don't have a website, still
no problem. I-Billboards will still generate traffic and leads.
do you have to do? You answer a few basic questions about
your business, we start the process of identifying what is
incredible about your business, we research your markets and
develop an I-Billboard.
AND JOIN THE I-BILLBOARD FAMILY - WHERE BUSINESS IS GROWING
look forward to serving you with purpose and making the Internet
Internet marketing a positive one!
FAMOUS LAST QUESTION!
HOW MUCH DOES IT COST?
The cost of the Lead Generation Machine
(I-Billboard) is $395 to setup and $100 per month rental.
You can cancel the rental at any time after the first month.
That's it? Yes, the cost of lead generation is less expensive
for an entire year than sending out flyers for a single run.
SAVED THE BEST NEWS FOR LAST! CALL, EMAIL OR FAX IN
RENTAL AGREEMENT TODAY!
marketing, also referred to as i-marketing, web-marketing,
online-marketing, or e-Marketing, is the marketing
of products or services over the Internet.
has brought media to a global audience. The interactive nature
of Internet marketing in terms of providing instant response
and eliciting responses, is a unique quality of the medium.
Internet marketing is sometimes considered to have a broader
scope because it not only refers to the Internet, e-mail,
and wireless media, but it includes management of digital
customer data and electronic customer relationship management
marketing ties together creative and technical aspects of
the Internet, including: design, development, advertising,
websites — this is an organization that generates value
by acquiring sales leads from its website
marketing — this is process in which a product or service
developed by one person is sold by other active seller for
a share of profits. The owner of the product normally provide
some marketing material (sales letter, affiliate link, tracking
internet marketing - this is the process of a locally based
company traditionally selling belly to belly and utilizing
the Internet to find and nurture relationships, later to
take those relationships offline.
marketing - this is a form of internet marketing which employs
deceptive, abusive, or less than truthful methods to drive
web traffic to a website or affiliate marketing offer. This
method sometimes includes spam, cloaking within search engine
result pages, or routing users to pages they didn't initially
are many other business models based on the specific needs
of each person or the business that launches an Internet marketing
user is typically browsing the Internet alone therefore the
marketing messages can reach them personally. This approach
is used in search marketing, where the advertisements are
based on search
entered by the users.
with the advent of Web 2.0 tools, many users can interconnect
to specific interests
marketing and geo marketing
places an emphasis on marketing that appeals to a specific
behaviour or interest, rather than reaching out to a broadly-defined
demographic. "On- and Off-line" marketers typically segment
their markets according to age group, gender, geography, and
other general factors. Marketers have the luxury of targeting
by activity and geolocation. For
example, a kayak company can post advertisements on kayaking
and canoeing websites with the full knowledge that the audience
has a related interest.
marketing differs from magazine advertisements, where the
goal is to appeal to the projected demographic of the periodical,
but rather the advertiser has knowledge of the target audience—people
who engage in certain activities (e.g., uploading pictures,
contributing to blogs)—
so the company does not rely on the expectation that a certain
group of people will be interested in its new product or service.
example for different content by choice in geo targeting is
the FedEx website at FedEx.com where users have the choice
to select their country location first and are then presented
with a different site or article content depending on their
different content in Internet marketing and geomarketing,
the delivery of different content based on the geographical
geolocation and other personal
information is automated.
marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the ratio
of cost against the reach of the target audience. Companies
can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional
advertising budgets. The nature of the medium allows consumers
to research and purchase products and services at their own
convenience. Therefore, businesses have the advantage of appealing
to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. The
strategy and overall effectiveness of marketing campaigns
depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit
marketers also have the advantage of measuring statistics
easily and inexpensively. Nearly all aspects of an Internet
marketing campaign can be traced, measured, and tested. The
advertisers can use a variety of methods: pay
per impression, pay per click,
pay per play, or pay
per action. Therefore, marketers can determine which messages
or offerings are more appealing to the audience. The results
of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because
online marketing initiatives usually require users to click
on an advertisement, visit a website, and perform a targeted
action. Such measurement cannot be achieved through billboard
advertising, where an individual will at best be interested,
then decide to obtain more information at a later time..
exposure, response, and overall efficiency of Internet media
are easier to track than traditional off-line media—through
the use of web analytics for
instance—Internet marketing can offer a greater sense of accountability
for advertisers. Marketers and their clients are becoming
aware of the need to measure the collaborative effects of
marketing (i.e., how the Internet affects in-store sales)
rather than siloing each
advertising medium. The effects of multichannel
marketing can be difficult to determine, but are an important
part of ascertaining the value of media campaigns.
marketing requires customers to use newer technologies rather
than traditional media. Low-speed Internet connections are
another barrier. If companies build large or overly-complicated
websites, individuals connected to the Internet via dial-up
connections or mobile
devices experience significant delays in content delivery.
buyer's perspective, the inability of shoppers to touch, smell,
taste or "try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase
can be limiting. However, there is an industry standard for
e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal
return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services.
of 410 marketing executives listed the following barriers
to entry for large companies looking to market online:
insufficient ability to measure impact, lack of internal capability,
and difficulty convincing senior management.
security is important both to companies and consumers
that participate in online business. Many consumers are hesitant
to purchase items over the Internet because they do not trust
that their personal information will remain private.
some companies that do business online have been caught giving
away or selling information about their customers. Several
of these companies provide guarantees on their websites, claiming
that customer information will remain private. Some companies
that purchase customer information offer the option for individuals
to have their information removed from the database,
also known as opting out. However,
many customers are unaware if and when their information is
being shared, and are unable to stop the transfer of their
information between companies if such activity occurs.
major security concern that consumers have with e-commerce
merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what
they purchase. Online merchants have attempted to address
this concern by investing in and building strong consumer
brands (e.g., Amazon.com, eBay,
Overstock.com), and by leveraging
merchant/feedback rating systems and e-commerce bonding
solutions. All of these solutions attempt to assure consumers
that their transactions will be free of problems because the
merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and
services. Additionally, the major online payment mechanisms
(credit cards, PayPal, Google
Checkout, etc.) have also provided back-end
buyer protection systems to address problems if they actually
advertising techniques have been dramatically affected by
technological advancements in the telecommunications industry.
In fact, many firms are embracing a new paradigm that is shifting
the focus of online advertising from simple text ads to rich
multimedia experiences. As a result, advertisers can more
effectively engage in and manage online branding campaigns,
which seek to shape consumer attitudes and feelings towards
specific products. The critical technological development
fueling this paradigm shift is Broadband.
2005, roughly half of all American homes were equipped with
broadband technology. By May 2008, broadband technologies
had spread to more than 90% of all residential Internet connections
in the United States. When one considers a Nielsen’s study
conducted in June 2008, which estimated the number of U.S.
Internet users as 220,141,969, one can calculate that there
are presently about 199 million people in the United States
utilizing broadband technologies to surf the Web.
As a result,
all 199 million members of this burgeoning market have the
ability to view TV-like advertisements with the click of a
mouse. And to be sure, online advertisers are working feverishly
to design rich multimedia content that will engender a “warm-fuzzy”
feeling when viewed by their target audience. As connection
speeds continue to increase, so will the frequency of online
of banks offering the ability to perform banking tasks over
the internet has also increased. Online
banking is appeals to customers because it is often faster
and considered more convenient than visiting bank
branches. Currently over 150 million U.S. adults
now bank online, with increasing Internet connection speed
being the primary reason for fast growth in the online banking
needed] Of those individuals who use the Internet,
44 percent now perform banking activities over the Internet.[citation
auctions have become a multi-billion dollar business.
Unique items that could only previously be found at flea markets
are now being sold on Internet auction websites such as eBay.
sell an almost endless amount of items ranging from antiques,
movie props, clothing, gadgets and much more. As the premier
online reselling platform, eBay is often used as a price-basis
for specialized items. Buyers and sellers often look at prices
on the website before going to flea markets; the price shown
on eBay often becomes the item's selling price. It is increasingly
common for flea market vendors to place a targeted advertisement
on the Internet for each item they are selling online, all
while running their business out of their homes.
to the major effect internet marketing has had on the technology
industry, the effect on the advertising industry itself has
been profound. In just a few years, online
advertising has grown to be worth tens of billions of
dollars annually. PricewaterhouseCoopers
reported that US$16.9 billion was spent on Internet marketing
in the U.S. in 2006.
had a growing impact on the electoral
process. In 2008 candidates for President heavily utilized
Internet marketing strategies to reach constituents. During
the 2007 primaries candidates added, on average, over 500 social
network supporters per day to help spread their message. President
Barack Obama raised over US$1 million
in a single day during his extensive Democratic candidacy
campaign, largely due to online donors.
is a form of communication intended
to persuade an
audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action.
It usually includes the name of a product or service and how
that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade
potential customers to purchase or to consume that particular
brand. Modern advertising developed
with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early
advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of
their products or services through branding, which involves
the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to
associate related qualities with the brand
in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be
used to deliver these messages, including traditional media
such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor
or direct mail; or new media such
as websites and text messages. Advertising may be placed by
an advertising agency on
behalf of a company or other organization.
advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than
a consumer product or service include political parties, interest
groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies.
Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion,
such as a public service
spending on advertising was estimated at more than $150 billion
in the United States and $385 billion worldwide.
period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional
medicine called Kinseitan
used papyrus to make sales messages
and wall posters. Commercial
messages and political campaign displays have been found
in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient
and found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient
Greece and Ancient Rome.
Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another
manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present
to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America.
The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian
rock art paintings that date back
to 4000 BC. History tells us that Out-of-home
advertising and billboards
are the oldest forms of advertising.
towns and cities of the Middle Ages
began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read,
signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith
would use an image associated with their trade such as a boot,
a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle
or even a bag of flour. Fruits and vegetables were sold in
the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their
proprietors used street callers (town
criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience
of the customers.
became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing,
developed advertising expanded to include handbills. In the
17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers
in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly
to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly
affordable with advances in the printing
press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after
as disease ravaged Europe. However, false
advertising and so-called "quack"
advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation
of advertising content.
economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew
alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising
format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.
1836, French newspaper La
Presse was the first to include paid advertising in
its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership
and increase its profitability
and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840,
Volney Palmer established a predecessor to advertising agencies
in Boston. Around the same time, in
France, Charles-Louis Havas
extended the services of his news agency, Havas
to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French
group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement
space in newspapers. N. W.
Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume
responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in
1869, and was located in Philadelphia.
1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.
turn of the century, there were few career choices for women
in business; however, advertising was one of the few. Since
women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in
their household, advertisers and
agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the
creative process. In fact, the
first American advertising to use a sexual
sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although
tame by today's standards, the advertisement featured a couple
with the message "The skin you love to touch".
early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by
radio equipment manufacturers and retailers who offered programs
in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed,
many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up
their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and
civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring
programs was popularised, each individual radio program was
usually sponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief
mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of
the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realised
they could earn more money by selling sponsorship rights in
small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their
radio station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship
rights to single businesses per show.
early 1950s, the DuMont
Television Network began the modern practice of selling
advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont
had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programs and
compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time
to several businesses. This eventually became the standard
for the commercial television industry in the United States.
However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor
shows, such as The
United States Steel Hour. In some instances the sponsors
exercised great control over the content of the show—up to
and including having one's advertising agency actually writing
the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent
now, a notable exception being the Hallmark
Hall of Fame.
saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which
creativity was allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages
that made advertisements more tempting to consumers' eyes.
The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring
such headlines as "Think Small" and "Lemon" (which were used
to describe the appearance of the car)—ushered in the era
of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique
selling proposition" designed to associate each brand with
a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind. This period
of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution
and its archetype was William
Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen
ads among others. Some of the most creative and long-standing
American advertising dates to this period.
through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers
and contributed to the "dot-com"
boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on
advertising revenue, offering everything from coupons
to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century,
a number of websites including the search
engineGoogle, started a change
in online advertising by
emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended
to help, rather than inundate, users. This has led to a plethora
of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive
of advertising spending relative to GDP
has changed little across large changes in media.
For example, in the US in 1925, the main advertising media
were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars,
and outdoor posters. Advertising spending
as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television
and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless,
advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about
advertising innovation is "guerrilla
marketing", which involve unusual approaches such as staged
encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as
cars that are covered with brand messages, and interactive
advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of
the advertising message.Guerrilla advertising is becoming
increasing more popular with a lot of companies. This type
of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes
consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing
trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product
placement, having consumers vote through text
messages, and various innovations utilizing social
network services such as MySpace.
advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and
services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public
about non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS, political ideology,
energy conservation and deforestation.
in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool
capable of reaching and motivating large audiences. "Advertising
justifies its existence when used in the public interest—it
is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes."
Attributed to Howard Gossage by David
United States, the granting of television and radio licenses
by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain
amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements,
many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required
public service announcements
during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage
of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial
slots available for high-paying advertisers.
service advertising reached its height during World
Wars I and II under the direction
of several governments.
people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising,
as with this Human
directional pictured above
with an advertisement for GAP
in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular mediums
any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising
media can include wall paintings, billboards,
street furniture components,
printed flyers and rack cards, radio,
cinema and television adverts, web
banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web
bus stop benches, human billboards,
magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners
attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"),
on seatback tray
tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts
and passenger screens, musical stage
shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable
diapers,doors of bathroom stalls,stickers on apples in supermarkets,
shopping cart handles (grabertising),
the opening section of streaming
audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and
supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays
to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.
commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market
advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV
networks charge for commercial airtime
during popular TV events. The annual Super
Bowlfootball game in
the United States is known as the most prominent advertising
event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second
TV spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009).
of television commercials feature a song or jingle
that listeners soon relate to the product.
advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming
through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise
blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are
not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially,
virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where
none exist in real-life. Virtual product placement is also
is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes
or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the
words "information" & "commercial". The main objective
in an infomercial is to create an impulse
purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and
then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free
telephone number or website. Infomercials
describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their
features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and
advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio.
advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from
a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device.
Airtime is purchased from a station
or network in exchange for airing
the commercials. While radio has the obvious limitation of
being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising
often cite this as an advantage.
advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such
as a newspaper, magazine,
or trade journal. This encompasses
everything from media with a very broad readership base, such
as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly
targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals
on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is
which allows private individuals or companies to purchase
a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a
product or service.
are large structures located in public places which display
advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most
often, they are located on main roads with a large amount
of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can
be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such
as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls
or office buildings, and in stadiums.
billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards
or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built
solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected
by clients, they can also be specially-equipped cargo trucks
or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards
are often lighted; some being backlit,
and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are
static, while others change; for example, continuously or
periodically rotating among a set of advertisements.
displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas
throughout the world, including:
and long-term campaigns
openings and similar promotional events
advertisements from smaller companies
advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store.
It includes placement of a product in visible locations in
a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near
checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a specific
product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts
and in-store video displays.
advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when
a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media.
For example, in a film, the main character can use an item
or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority
Report, where Tom Cruise's
character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia
logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved
with the Bulgari logo. Another
example of advertising in film is in I,
Robot, where main character played by Will
Smith mentions his Converse
shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the
film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs
also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi
and Mercedes-Benz logos
clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac
chose to advertise in the movie The
Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many
scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product
placement for Omega Watches, Ford,
VAIO, BMW and Aston
Martin cars are featured in recent James
Bond films, most notably Casino
Royale. In "Fantastic
Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle
shows a large Dodge logo on the front.
Blade Runner includes
some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film
stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard.
of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money,
popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote
specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their
products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite
products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers.
Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such
as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general
of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides,
however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to
the public relations of a brand. For example, following his
performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games
in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's
was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with
him after he was photographed smoking marijuana.
and advertising approaches
other media are overtaking many of the "traditional" media
such as television, radio and newspaper because of a shift
toward consumer's usage of the Internet for news and music
as well as devices like digital
video recorders (DVRs) such as TiVo.
on the World Wide Web is a
recent phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are
dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content
and the traffic that the website receives.
signage is poised to become a major mass media because
of its ability to reach larger audiences for less money. Digital
signage also offer the unique ability to see the target audience
where they are reached by the medium. Technology advances
has also made it possible to control the message on digital
signage with much precision, enabling the messages to be relevant
to the target audience at any given time and location which
in turn, gets more response from the advertising. Digital
signage is being successfully employed in supermarkets. Another
successful use of digital signage is in hospitality locations
such as restaurants. and malls.
advertising is another recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk
E-mail advertising is known as "e-mail
spam". Spam has been a problem for email users for many
advertising (also called "publicity advertising"), can provide
good exposure at minimal cost. Personal recommendations ("bring
a friend", "sell it"), spreading buzz, or achieving the feat
of equating a brand with a common noun (in the United States,
"Xerox" = "photocopier",
"Kleenex" = tissue,
"Vaseline" = petroleum
jelly, "Hoover" = vacuum
cleaner, "Nintendo" (often used
by those exposed to many video games) = video
games, and "Band-Aid" = adhesive
bandage) — these can be seen as the pinnacle of any advertising
campaign. However, some companies oppose the use of their
brand name to label an object. Equating a brand with a common
noun also risks turning that brand into a genericized
trademark - turning it into a generic term which means
that its legal protection as a trademark
mobile phone became a new mass media in 1998 when the first
paid downloadable content appeared on mobile phones in Finland,
it was only a matter of time until mobile
advertising followed, also first launched in Finland in
2000. By 2007 the value of mobile advertising had reached
$2.2 billion and providers such as Admob
delivered billions of mobile ads.
mobile ads include banner ads, coupons, Multimedia
Messaging Service picture and video messages, advergames
and various engagement marketing
campaigns. A particular feature driving mobile ads is the
2D Barcode, which replaces the need
to do any typing of web addresses, and uses the camera feature
of modern phones to gain immediate access to web content.
83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active
users of 2D barcodes.
form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social
network advertising. It is online advertising with a focus
on social networking sites. This is a relatively immature
market, but it has shown a lot of promise as advertisers are
able to take advantage of the demographic information the
user has provided to the social networking site. Friendertising
is a more precise advertising term in which people are able
to direct advertisements toward others directly using social
there appeared a new promotion concept, "ARvertising", advertising
advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth,
it is not without social costs. Unsolicited
Commercial Email and other forms of spam
have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance
to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden
on internet service
providers. Advertising is increasingly invading public
spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form
of child exploitation. In addition, advertising frequently
uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings
of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful.
and the commercial tidal wave
of advertising is closely linked with criticism of media and
often interchangeable. They can refer to its audio-visual
aspects (e. g. cluttering of public spaces and airwaves),
environmental aspects (e. g. pollution, oversize packaging,
increasing consumption), political aspects (e. g. media dependency,
free speech, censorship), financial aspects (costs), ethical/moral/social
aspects (e. g. sub-conscious influencing, invasion of privacy,
increasing consumption and waste, target groups, certain products,
honesty) and, of course, a mix thereof. Some aspects can be
subdivided further and some can cover more than one category.
has become increasingly prevalent in modern Western societies,
it is also increasingly being criticized. A person can hardly
move in the public sphere or use a medium without being subject
to advertising. Advertising occupies public space and more
and more invades the private sphere of people, many of which
consider it a nuisance. “It is becoming harder to escape from
advertising and the media. … Public space is increasingly
turning into a gigantic billboard for products of all kind.
The aesthetical and political consequences cannot yet be foreseen.”
Hanno Rauterberg in the German newspaper ‘Die Zeit’ calls
advertising a new kind of dictatorship that cannot be escaped.
creep: "There are ads in schools, airport lounges, doctors
offices, movie theaters, hospitals, gas stations, elevators,
convenience stores, on the Internet, on fruit, on ATMs, on
garbage cans and countless other places. There are ads on
beach sand and restroom walls.” “One of the ironies of advertising
in our times is that as commercialism increases, it makes
it that much more difficult for any particular advertiser
to succeed, hence pushing the advertiser to even greater efforts.”
Within a decade advertising in radios climbed to nearly 18
or 19 minutes per hour; on prime-time television the standard
until 1982 was no more than 9.5 minutes of advertising per
hour, today it’s between 14 and 17 minutes. With the introduction
of the shorter 15-second-spot the total amount of ads increased
even more dramatically. Ads are not only placed in breaks
but e. g. also into baseball telecasts during the game itself.
They flood the internet, a market growing in leaps and bounds.
growing markets are ‘’product
placements’’ in entertainment programming and in movies
where it has become standard practice and ‘’virtual advertising’’
where products get placed retroactively into rerun shows.
Product billboards are virtually inserted into Major League
Baseball broadcasts and in the same manner, virtual street
banners or logos are projected on an entry canopy or sidewalks,
for example during the arrival of celebrities at the 2001
Advertising precedes the showing of films at cinemas including
lavish ‘film shorts’ produced by companies such as Microsoft
or DaimlerChrysler. “The largest advertising agencies have
begun working aggressively to co-produce programming in conjunction
with the largest media firms” creating Infomercials resembling
equate the growing amount of advertising with a “tidal wave”
and restrictions with “damming” the flood. Kalle
Lasn, one of the most outspoken critics of advertising
on the international stage, considers advertising “the most
prevalent and toxic of the mental pollutants. From the moment
your radio alarm sounds in the morning to the wee hours of
late-night TV microjolts of commercial pollution flood into
your brain at the rate of around 3,000 marketing messages
per day. Every day an estimated twelve billion display ads,
3 million radio commercials and more than 200,000 television
commercials are dumped into North America’s collective unconscious”.
In the course of his life the average American watches three
years of advertising on television.
developments are video games incorporating products into their
content, special commercial patient channels in hospitals
and public figures sporting temporary tattoos. A method unrecognisable
as advertising is so-called ‘’guerrilla marketing’’ which
is spreading ‘buzz’ about a new product in target audiences.
Cash-strapped U.S. cities do not shrink back from offering
police cars for advertising. A trend, especially in Germany,
is companies buying the names of sports stadiums. The Hamburg
soccer Volkspark stadium first became the AOL Arena and then
the HSH Nordbank Arena.
The Stuttgart Neckarstadion became the Mercedes-Benz
Arena, the Dortmund Westfalenstadion now is the Signal
Iduna Park. The former SkyDome in Toronto was renamed
Rogers Centre. Other recent
developments are, for example, that whole subway stations
in Berlin are redesigned into product halls and exclusively
leased to a company. Düsseldorf even has ‘multi-sensorial’
adventure transit stops equipped with loudspeakers and systems
that spread the smell of a detergent. Swatch used beamers
to project messages on the Berlin TV-tower and Victory column,
which was fined because it was done without a permit. The
illegality was part of the scheme and added promotion.
business management knowledge that advertising is a pillar,
if not “the” pillar of the growth-orientated free capitalist
economy. “Advertising is part of the bone marrow of corporate
capitalism.” “Contemporary capitalism could not function and
global production networks could not exist as they do without
scientist and media economist Manfred Knoche at the University
of Salzburg, Austria, advertising isn’t just simply a ‘necessary
evil’ but a ‘necessary elixir of life’ for the media business,
the economy and capitalism as a whole. Advertising and mass
media economic interests create ideology. Knoche describes
advertising for products and brands as ‘the producer’s weapons
in the competition for customers’ and trade advertising, e.
g. by the automotive industry, as a means to collectively
represent their interests against other groups, such as the
train companies. In his view editorial articles and programmes
in the media, promoting consumption in general, provide a
‘cost free’ service to producers and sponsoring for a ‘much
used means of payment’ in advertising. Christopher
Lasch argues that advertising leads to an overall increase
in consumption in
society; "Advertising serves not so much to advertise products
as to promote consumption as a way
and constitutional rights
is equated with constitutionally guaranteed freedom of opinion
and speech. Therefore criticizing advertising or any attempt
to restrict or ban advertising is almost always considered
to be an attack on fundamental rights[citation
Amendment in the US) and meets the combined and concentrated
resistance of the business and especially the advertising
community. “Currently or in the near future, any number of
cases are and will be working their way through the court
system that would seek to prohibit any government regulation
of ... commercial speech (e.g. advertising or food labelling)
on the grounds that such regulation would violate citizens’
and corporations’ First Amendment rights to free speech or
free press.” An example for this debate is advertising for
tobacco or alcohol but also advertising by mail or fliers
(clogged mail boxes), advertising on the phone, in the internet
and advertising for children. Various legal restrictions concerning
spamming, advertising on mobile phones, addressing children,
tobacco, alcohol have been introduced by the US, the EU and
various other countries. Not only the business community resists
restrictions of advertising. Advertising as a means of free
expression has firmly established itself in western society[citation
needed]. McChesney argues, that the government
deserves constant vigilance when it comes to such regulations,
but that it is certainly not “the only antidemocratic force
in our society. ...corporations and the wealthy enjoy a power
every bit as immense as that enjoyed by the lords and royalty
of feudal times” and “markets are not value-free or neutral;
they not only tend to work to the advantage of those with
the most money, but they also by their very nature emphasize
profit over all else….Hence, today the debate is over whether
advertising or food labelling, or campaign contributions are
speech...if the rights to be protected by the First Amendment
can only be effectively employed by a fraction of the citizenry,
and their exercise of these rights gives them undue political
power and undermines the ability of the balance of the citizenry
to exercise the same rights and/or constitutional rights,
then it is not necessarily legitimately protected by the First
Amendment.” In addition, “those with the capacity to engage
in free press are in a position to determine who can speak
to the great mass of citizens and who cannot”. Critics in
turn argue, that advertising invades privacy which is a constitutional
right. For, on the one hand, advertising physically invades
privacy, on the other, it increasingly uses relevant, information-based
communication with private data assembled without the knowledge
or consent of consumers or target groups.
Franck at Vienna University of Technology advertising is part
of what he calls “mental capitalism”, taking up a term (mental)
which has been used by groups concerned with the mental environment,
such as Adbusters. Franck blends
the “Economy of Attention” with Christopher Lasch’s culture
of narcissm into the mental capitalism: In his essay „Advertising
at the Edge of the Apocalypse“, Sut
Jhally writes: “20. century advertising is the most powerful
and sustained system of propaganda in human history and its
cumulative cultural effects, unless quickly checked, will
be responsible for destroying the world as we know it.
price of attention and hidden costs
has developed into a billion-dollar business on which many
depend. In 2006 391 billion US dollars were spent worldwide
for advertising. In Germany, for example, the advertising
industry contributes 1.5% of the gross national income; the
figures for other developed countries are similar.[citation
needed] Thus, advertising and growth are directly
and causally linked. As far as a growth based economy can
be blamed for the harmful human lifestyle (affluent society)
advertising has to be considered in this aspect concerning
its negative impact, because its main purpose is to raise
consumption. “The industry is accused of being one of the
engines powering a convoluted economic mass production system
which promotes consumption.”
and attentiveness have become a new commodity for which a
market developed. “The amount of attention that is absorbed
by the media and redistributed in the competition for quotas
and reach is not identical with the amount of attention, that
is available in society. The total amount circulating in society
is made up of the attention exchanged among the people themselves
and the attention given to media information. Only the latter
is homogenised by quantitative measuring and only the latter
takes on the character of an anonymous currency.” According
to Franck, any surface of presentation that can guarantee
a certain degree of attentiveness works as magnet for attention,
e. g. media which are actually meant for information and entertainment,
culture and the arts, public space etc. It is this attraction
which is sold to the advertising business. The German Advertising
Association stated that in 2007 30.78 billion Euros were spent
on advertising in Germany, 26% in newspapers, 21% on television,
15% by mail and 15% in magazines. In 2002 there were 360.000
people employed in the advertising business. The internet
revenues for advertising doubled to almost 1 billion Euros
from 2006 to 2007, giving it the highest growth rates.
reported that in the US in 2008 for the first time more money
was spent for advertising on internet (105.3 billion US dollars)
than on television (98.5 billion US dollars). The largest
amount in 2008 was still spent in the print media (147 billion
US dollars). For that same year, Welt-Online reported that
the US pharmaceutical industry spent almost double the amount
on advertising (57.7 billion dollars) than it did on research
(31.5 billion dollars). But Marc-André Gagnon und Joel Lexchin
of York University, Toronto, estimate that the actual expenses
for advertising are higher yet, because not all entries are
recorded by the research institutions. Not included are indirect
advertising campaigns such as sales, rebates and price reductions.
Few consumers are aware of the fact that they are the ones
paying for every cent spent for public relations, advertisements,
rebates, packaging etc. since they ordinarily get included
in the price calculation.
for McDonald's on the Via di Propaganda, Rome, Italy
important element of advertising is not information but suggestion
more or less making use of associations, emotions (appeal
to emotion) and drives dormant in the sub-conscience of
people, such as sex drive, herd instinct, of desires, such
as happiness, health, fitness, appearance, self-esteem, reputation,
belonging, social status, identity, adventure, distraction,
reward, of fears (appeal to fear),
such as illness, weaknesses, loneliness, need, uncertainty,
security or of prejudices, learned opinions and comforts.
“All human needs, relationships, and fears – the deepest recesses
of the human psyche – become mere means for the expansion
of the commodity universe under the force of modern marketing.
With the rise to prominence of modern marketing, commercialism
– the translation of human relations into commodity relations
– although a phenomenon intrinsic to capitalism, has expanded
exponentially.” ’Cause-related marketing’ in which advertisers
link their product to some worthy social cause has boomed
over the past decade.
exploits the model role of celebrities or popular figures
and makes deliberate use of humour as well as of associations
with colour, tunes, certain names and terms. Altogether, these
are factors of how one perceives himself and one’s self-worth.
In his description of ‘mental capitalism’ Franck says, “the
promise of consumption making someone irresistible is the
ideal way of objects and symbols into a person’s subjective
experience. Evidently, in a society in which revenue of attention
moves to the fore, consumption is drawn by one’s self-esteem.
As a result, consumption becomes ‘work’ on a person’s attraction.
From the subjective point of view, this ‘work’ opens fields
of unexpected dimensions for advertising. Advertising takes
on the role of a life councillor in matters of attraction.
(…) The cult around one’s own attraction is what Christopher
Lasch described as ‘Culture of Narcissism’.”
critics another serious problem is that “the long standing
notion of separation between advertising and editorial/creative
sides of media is rapidly crumbling” and advertising is increasingly
hard to tell apart from news, information or entertainment.
The boundaries between advertising and programming are becoming
blurred. According to the media firms all this commercial
involvement has no influence over actual media content, but,
as McChesney puts it, “this claim fails to pass even the most
basic giggle test, it is so preposterous.”
draws “heavily on psychological theories about how to create
subjects, enabling advertising and marketing to take on a
‘more clearly psychological tinge’ (Miller and Rose, 1997,
cited in Thrift, 1999, p. 67). Increasingly, the emphasis
in advertising has switched from providing ‘factual’ information
to the symbolic connotations of commodities, since the crucial
cultural premise of advertising is that the material object
being sold is never in itself enough. Even those commodities
providing for the most mundane necessities of daily life must
be imbued with symbolic qualities and culturally endowed meanings
via the ‘magic system (Williams, 1980) of advertising. In
this way and by altering the context in which advertisements
appear, things ‘can be made to mean "just about anything"’
(McFall, 2002, p.162) and the ‘same’ things can be endowed
with different intended meanings for different individuals
and groups of people, thereby offering mass produced visions
advertising is done, market research
institutions need to know and describe the target group to
exactly plan and implement the advertising campaign and to
achieve the best possible results. A whole array of sciences
directly deal with advertising and marketing or is used to
improve its effects. Focus groups, psychologists and cultural
anthropologists are ‘’’de rigueur’’’ in marketing research”.
Vast amounts of data on persons and their shopping habits
are collected, accumulated, aggregated and analysed with the
aid of credit cards, bonus cards, raffles and internet surveying.
With increasing accuracy this supplies a picture of behaviour,
wishes and weaknesses of certain sections of a population
with which advertisement can be employed more selectively
and effectively. The efficiency of advertising is improved
through advertising research.
Universities, of course supported by business and in co-operation
with other disciplines (s. above), mainly Psychiatry,
and behavioural sciences, are constantly in search for ever
more refined, sophisticated, subtle and crafty methods to
make advertising more effective. “Neuromarketing
is a controversial new field of marketing which uses medical
technologies such as functional Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (fMRI) -- not to heal, but to sell products.
Advertising and marketing firms have long used the insights
and research methods of psychology in order to sell products,
of course. But today these practices are reaching epidemic
levels, and with a complicity on the part of the psychological
profession that exceeds that of the past. The result is an
enormous advertising and marketing onslaught that comprises,
arguably, the largest single psychological project ever undertaken.
Yet, this great undertaking remains largely ignored by the
American Psychological Association.” Robert McChesney calls
it "the greatest concerted attempt at psychological manipulation
in all of human history."
of the media and corporate censorship
all mass media are advertising media and many of them are
exclusively advertising media and, with the exception of public
service broadcasting are privately owned. Their income
is predominantly generated through advertising; in the case
of newspapers and magazines from 50 to 80%. Public service
broadcasting in some countries can also heavily depend on
advertising as a source of income (up to 40%). In the view
of critics no media that spreads advertisements can be independent
and the higher the proportion of advertising, the higher the
dependency. This dependency has “distinct implications for
the nature of media content…. In the business press, the media
are often referred to in exactly the way they present themselves
in their candid moments: as a branch of the advertising industry.”
the private media are increasingly subject to mergers and
concentration with property situations often becoming entangled
and opaque. This development, which Henry A. Giroux calls
an “ongoing threat to democratic culture”, by itself should
suffice to sound all alarms in a democracy. Five or six advertising
agencies dominate this 400 billion U.S. dollar global industry.
have long faced pressure to shape stories to suit advertisers
and owners …. the vast majority of TV station executives found
their news departments ‘cooperative’ in shaping the news to
assist in ‘non-traditional revenue development.” Negative
and undesired reporting can be prevented or influenced when
advertisers threaten to cancel orders or simply when there
is a danger of such a cancellation. Media dependency and such
a threat becomes very real when there is only one dominant
or very few large advertisers. The influence of advertisers
is not only in regard to news or information on their own
products or services but expands to articles or shows not
directly linked to them. In order to secure their advertising
revenues the media has to create the best possible ‘advertising
environment’. Another problem considered censorship by critics
is the refusal of media to accept advertisements that are
not in their interest. A striking example of this is the refusal
of TV stations to broadcast ads by Adbusters.
Groups try to place advertisements and are refused by networks.
principally the viewing rates which decide upon the programme
in the private radio and television business. “Their business
is to absorb as much attention as possible. The viewing rate
measures the attention the media trades for the information
offered. The service of this attraction is sold to the advertising
business” and the viewing rates determine the price that can
be demanded for advertising.
companies determining the contents of shows has been part
of daily life in the USA since 1933. Procter & Gamble
(P&G) …. offered a radio station a history-making trade
(today know as “bartering”): the company would produce an
own show for “free” and save the radio station the high expenses
for producing contents. Therefore the company would want its
commercials spread and, of course, its products placed in
the show. Thus, the series ‘Ma Perkins’
was created, which P&G skilfully used to promote Oxydol,
the leading detergent brand in those years and the Soap
opera was born …”
critics basically worry about the subtle influence of the
economy on the media, there are also examples of blunt exertion
of influence. The US company Chrysler,
before it merged with Daimler
Benz had its agency, PentaCom, send out a letter to numerous
magazines, demanding them to send, an overview of all the
topics before the next issue is published to “avoid potential
conflict”. Chrysler most of all wanted to know, if there would
be articles with “sexual, political or social” content or
which could be seen as “provocative or offensive”. PentaCom
executive David Martin said: “Our reasoning is, that anyone
looking at a 22.000 $ product would want it surrounded by
positive things. There is nothing positive about an article
on child pornography.” In another example, the USA Network
held top-level‚ off-the-record meetings with advertisers in
2000 to let them tell the network what type of programming
content they wanted in order for USA to get their advertising.”
Television shows are created to accommodate the needs for
advertising, e.g. splitting them up in suitable sections.
Their dramaturgy is typically designed to end in suspense
or leave an unanswered question in order to keep the viewer
system, at one time outside the direct influence of the broader
marketing system, is now fully integrated into it through
the strategies of licensing, tie-ins and product placements.
The prime function of many Hollywood films today is to aid
in the selling of the immense collection of commodities. The
press called the 2002 Bond film ‘Die Another Day’ featuring
24 major promotional partners an ‘ad-venture’ and noted that
James Bond “now has been ‘licensed
to sell’” As it has become standard practise to place products
in motion pictures, it “has self-evident implications for
what types of films will attract product placements and what
types of films will therefore be more likely to get made”.
and information are increasingly hard to distinguish from
each other. “The borders between advertising and media ….
become more and more blurred…. What August Fischer, chairman
of the board of Axel Springer
publishing company considers to be a ‘proven partnership between
the media and advertising business’ critics regard as nothing
but the infiltration of journalistic duties and freedoms”.
According to RTL-executive Helmut Thoma
“private stations shall not and cannot serve any mission but
only the goal of the company which is the ‘acceptance by the
advertising business and the viewer’. The setting of priorities
in this order actually says everything about the ‘design of
the programmes’ by private television.” Patrick Le Lay, former
managing director of TF1, a private French television channel
with a market share of 25 to 35%, said: "There are many ways
to talk about television. But from the business point of view,
let’s be realistic: basically, the job of TF1 is, e. g. to
help Coca Cola sell its product. (…) For an advertising message
to be perceived the brain of the viewer must be at our disposal.
The job of our programmes is to make it available, that is
to say, to distract it, to relax it and get it ready between
two messages. It is disposable human brain time that we sell
to Coca Cola.”
of these dependencies a widespread and fundamental public
debate about advertising and its influence on information
and freedom of speech is difficult to obtain, at least through
the usual media channels; otherwise these would saw off the
branch they are sitting on. “The notion that the commercial
basis of media, journalism, and communication could have troubling
implications for democracy is excluded from the range of legitimate
debate” just as “capitalism is off-limits as a topic of legitimate
debate in US political culture”.
critic of the structural basis of US journalism was Upton
Sinclair with his novel The
Brass Check in which he stresses the influence of owners,
advertisers, public relations, and economic interests on the
media. In his book “Our Master's Voice – Advertising” the
social ecologist James Rorty (1890–1973) wrote: "The gargoyle’s
mouth is a loudspeaker, powered by the vested interest of
a two-billion dollar industry, and back of that the vested
interests of business as a whole, of industry, of finance.
It is never silent, it drowns out all other voices, and it
suffers no rebuke, for it is not the voice of America? That
is its claim and to some extent it is a just claim...”
taught us how to live, what to be afraid of, what to be proud
of, how to be beautiful, how to be loved, how to be envied,
how to be successful.. Is it any wonder that the American
population tends increasingly to speak, think, feel in terms
of this jabberwocky? That the stimuli of art, science, religion
are progressively expelled to the periphery of American life
to become marginal values, cultivated by marginal people on
commercialisation of culture and sports
exhibitions, shows, concerts, conventions and most other events
can hardly take place without sponsoring.[citation
needed] The increasing lack arts and culture
they buy the service of attraction. Artists are graded and
paid according to their art’s value for commercial purposes.
Corporations promote renown artists, therefore getting exclusive
rights in global advertising campaigns. Broadway shows, like
‘La Bohème’ featured commercial props in its set.
itself is extensively considered to be a contribution to culture.
Advertising is integrated into fashion. On many pieces of
clothing the company logo is the only
design or is an important part of it. There is only little
room left outside the consumption economy, in which culture
and art can develop independently and where alternative values
can be expressed. A last important sphere, the universities,
is under strong pressure to open up for business and its interests.
billboard in front of a sports stadium
sports have become unthinkable without sponsoring and there
is a mutual dependency. High income with advertising is only
possible with a comparable number of spectators or viewers.
On the other hand, the poor performance of a team or a sportsman
results in less advertising revenues. Jürgen Hüther and Hans-Jörg
Stiehler talk about a ‘Sports/Media Complex which is a complicated
mix of media, agencies, managers, sports promoters, advertising
etc. with partially common and partially diverging interests
but in any case with common commercial interests. The media
presumably is at centre stage because it can supply the other
parties involved with a rare commodity, namely (potential)
public attention. In sports “the media are able to generate
enormous sales in both circulation and advertising.”
sponsorship is acknowledged by the tobacco industry to be
valuable advertising. A Tobacco Industry journal in 1994 described
the Formula One car as ‘The most powerful advertising space
in the world’. …. In a cohort study carried out in 22 secondary
schools in England in 1994 and 1995 boys whose favourite television
sport was motor racing had a 12.8% risk of becoming regular
smokers compared to 7.0% of boys who did not follow motor
sale of tickets but transmission rights, sponsoring and merchandising
in the meantime make up the largest part of sports association’s
and sports club’s revenues with the IOC (International
Olympic Committee) taking the lead. The influence of the
media brought many changes in sports including the admittance
of new ‘trend sports’ into the Olympic
Games, the alteration of competition distances, changes
of rules, animation of spectators, changes of sports facilities,
the cult of sports heroes who quickly establish themselves
in the advertising and entertaining business because of their
media value and last but not least, the naming and renaming
of sport stadiums after big companies. “In sports adjustment
into the logic of the media can contribute to the erosion
of values such as equal chances or fairness, to excessive
demands on athletes through public pressure and multiple exploitation
or to deceit (doping, manipulation
of results …). It is in the very interest of the media and
sports to counter this danger because media sports can only
work as long as sport exists.
and commercialisation of public space
visually perceptible place has potential for advertising.
Especially urban areas with their structures but also landscapes
in sight of through fares are more and more turning into media
for advertisements. Signs, posters, billboards, flags have
become decisive factors in the urban appearance and their
numbers are still on the increase. “Outdoor advertising has
become unavoidable. Traditional billboards and transit shelters
have cleared the way for more pervasive methods such as wrapped
vehicles, sides of buildings, electronic signs, kiosks, taxis,
posters, sides of buses, and more. Digital technologies are
used on buildings to sport ‘urban wall displays’. In urban
areas commercial content is placed in our sight and into our
consciousness every moment we are in public space. The German
Newspaper ‘Zeit’ called it a new kind of ‘dictatorship that
one cannot escape’. Over time, this domination of the surroundings
has become the “natural” state. Through long-term commercial
saturation, it has become implicitly understood by the public
that advertising has the right to own, occupy and control
every inch of available space. The steady normalization of
invasive advertising dulls the public’s perception of their
surroundings, re-enforcing a general attitude of powerlessness
toward creativity and change, thus a cycle develops enabling
advertisers to slowly and consistently increase the saturation
of advertising with little or no public outcry.”
optical orientation toward advertising changes the function
of public spaces which are utilised by brands. Urban landmarks
are turned into trademarks. The highest pressure is exerted
on renown and highly frequented public spaces which are also
important for the identity of a city (e.g. Piccadilly
Circus, Times Square, Alexanderplatz).
Urban spaces are public commodities and in this capacity they
are subject to “aesthetical environment protection”, mainly
through building regulations, heritage protection and landscape
protection. “It is in this capacity that these spaces are
now being privatised. They are peppered with billboards and
signs, they are remodelled into media for advertising.”
aspects: sexism, discrimination and stereotyping
has an “agenda setting function” which is the ability, with
huge sums of money, to put consumption as the only item on
the agenda. In the battle for a share of the public conscience
this amounts to non-treatment (ignorance) of whatever is not
commercial and whatever is not advertised for. Advertising
should be reflection of society norms and give clear picture
of target market. Spheres without commerce and advertising
serving the muses and relaxation remain without respect.[neutrality
is disputed] With
increasing force advertising makes itself comfortable in the
private sphere so that the voice of commerce becomes the dominant
way of expression in society.” Advertising critics see advertising
as the leading light in our culture. Sut Jhally and James
Twitchell go beyond considering advertising as kind of religion
and that advertising even replaces religion as a key institution.
advertising (or commercial media) is the largest single psychological
project ever undertaken by the human race. Yet for all of
that, its impact on us remains unknown and largely ignored.
When I think of the media’s influence over years, over decades,
I think of those brainwashing experiments conducted by Dr.
Ewen Cameron in a Montreal psychiatric hospital in the 1950s
The idea of the CIA-sponsored "depatterning" experiments was
to outfit conscious, unconscious or semiconscious subjects
with headphones, and flood their brains with thousands of
repetitive "driving" messages that would alter their behaviour
over time….Advertising aims to do the same thing."
is especially aimed at young people and children and it increasingly
reduces young people to consumers. For Sut Jhally it is not
“surprising that something this central and with so much being
expended on it should become an important presence in social
life. Indeed, commercial interests intent on maximizing the
consumption of the immense collection of commodities have
colonized more and more of the spaces of our culture. For
instance, almost the entire media system (television and print)
has been developed as a delivery system for marketers its
prime function is to produce audiences for sale to advertisers.
Both the advertisements it carries, as well as the editorial
matter that acts as a support for it, celebrate the consumer
society. The movie system, at one time outside the direct
influence of the broader marketing system, is now fully integrated
into it through the strategies of licensing, tie-ins and product
placements. The prime function of many Hollywood films today
is to aid in the selling of the immense collection of commodities.
As public funds are drained from the non-commercial cultural
sector, art galleries, museums and symphonies bid for corporate
sponsorship.” In the same way effected is the education system
and advertising is increasingly penetrating schools and universities.
Cities, such as New York, accept sponsors for public playgrounds.
“Even the pope has been commercialized … The pope’s 4-day
visit to Mexico in …1999 was sponsored by Frito-Lay and PepsiCo.
The industry is accused of being one of the engines powering
a convoluted economic mass production system which promotes
consumption. As far as social effects are concerned it does
not matter whether advertising fuels consumption but which
values, patterns of behaviour and assignments of meaning it
propagates. Advertising is accused of hijacking the language
and means of pop culture, of protest movements and even of
subversive criticism and does not shy away from scandalizing
and breaking taboos (e.g. Benneton). This in turn incites
counter action, what Kalle Lasn in 2001 called ‘’Jamming the
Jam of the Jammers’’. Anything goes. “It is a central social-scientific
question what people can be made to do by suitable design
of conditions and of great practical importance. For example,
from a great number of experimental psychological experiments
it can be assumed, that people can be made to do anything
they are capable of, when the according social condition can
often uses stereotype gender specific roles of men and women
reinforcing existing clichés and it
has been criticized as “inadvertently or even intentionally
promoting sexism, racism, and ageism… At very least, advertising
often reinforces stereotypes by drawing on recognizable "types"
in order to tell stories in a single image or 30 second time
frame.” Activities are depicted as typical male or female
(stereotyping). In addition people are reduced to their sexuality
or equated with commodities and gender specific qualities
are exaggerated. Sexualized female bodies, but increasingly
also males, serve as eye-catchers. In advertising it is usually
a woman being depicted as
of men and children that react to the demands and complaints
of their loved ones with a bad conscience and the promise
for immediate improvement (wash, food)
or emotional play toy for the self-affirmation of men
totally clueless being (almost always male) that can only
manage a childproof operation
expert, but stereotype from the fields of fashion, cosmetics,
food or at the most, medicine
ultra thin, slim, and very skinny.
ground-work for others, e.g. serving coffee while a journalist
interviews a politician
portion of advertising deals with promotion of products that
pertain to the "ideal body image." This is mainly targeted
toward women, and, in the past, this type of advertising was
aimed nearly exclusively at women. Women in advertisements
are generally portrayed as good-looking women who are in good
health. This, however, is not the case of the average woman.
Consequently, they give a negative message of body image to
the average woman. Because of the media, girls and women who
are overweight, and otherwise "normal" feel almost obligated
to take care of themselves and stay fit. They feel under high
pressure to maintain an acceptable bodyweight and take care
of their health. Consequences of this are low self-esteem,eating
disorders, self mutilations, and beauty operations for those
women that just cannot bring themselves eat right or get the
motivation to go to the gym. The EU parliament passed a resolution
in 2008 that advertising may not be discriminating and degrading.
This shows that politicians are increasingly concerned about
the negative impacts of advertising. However, the benefits
of promoting overall health and fitness are often overlooked.
Men are also negatively portrayed as incompetent and the butt
of every joke in advertising.
and adolescents as target groups
market, where resistance to advertising is weakest, is the
“pioneer for ad creep”. “Kids are among the most sophisticated
observers of ads. They can sing the jingles and identify the
logos, and they often have strong feelings about products.
What they generally don't understand, however, are the issues
that underlie how advertising works. Mass media are used not
only to sell goods but also ideas: how we should behave, what
rules are important, who we should respect and what we should
value.” Youth is increasingly reduced to the role of a consumer.
Not only the makers of toys, sweets, ice cream, breakfast
food and sport articles prefer to aim their promotion at children
and adolescents. For example, an ad for a breakfast cereal
on a channel aimed at adults will have music that is a soft
ballad, whereas on a channel aimed at children, the same ad
will use a catchy rock jingle of the same song to aim at kids.
Advertising for other products preferably uses media with
which they can also reach the next generation of consumers.
“Key advertising messages exploit the emerging independence
of young people”. Cigarettes, for example, “are used as a
fashion accessory and appeal to young women. Other influences
on young people include the linking of sporting heroes and
smoking through sports sponsorship, the use of cigarettes
by popular characters in television programmes and cigarette
promotions. Research suggests that young people are aware
of the most heavily advertised cigarette brands.”
placements show up everywhere, and children aren't exempt.
Far from it. The animated film, Foodfight, had ‘thousands
of products and character icons from the familiar (items)
in a grocery store.’ Children's books also feature branded
items and characters, and millions of them have snack foods
as lead characters.“ Business is interested in children and
adolescents because of their buying power and because of their
influence on the shopping habits of their parents. As they
are easier to influence they are especially targeted by the
advertising business. “The marketing industry is facing increased
pressure over claimed links between exposure to food advertising
and a range of social problems, especially growing obesity
levels.” In 2001, children’s programming accounted for over
20% of all US television watching. The global market for children’s
licensed products was some 132 billion US dollars in 2002.
Advertisers target children because, e.g. in Canada, they
“represent three distinct markets:
Purchasers ($2.9 billion annually)
Consumers (Brand-loyal adults)
Influencers ($20 billion annually)
carry forward brand expectations, whether positive, negative,
or indifferent. Kids are already accustomed to being catered
to as consumers. The long term prize: Loyalty of the kid translates
into a brand loyal adult customer”
Canadian child sees 350,000 TV commercials before graduating
from high school, spends nearly as much time watching TV as
attending classes. In 1980 the Canadian province of Québec
banned advertising for children under age 13. “In upholding
the consititutional validity of the Quebec Consumer Protection
Act restrictions on advertising to children under age 13 (in
the case of a challenge by a toy company) the Court held:
‘...advertising directed at young children is per se manipulative.
Such advertising aims to promote products by convincing those
who will always believe.’” Norway (ads directed at children
under age 12), and Sweden (television ads aimed at children
under age 12) also have legislated broad bans on advertising
to children, during child programmes any kind of advertising
is forbidden in Sweden, Denmark, Austria and Flemish Belgium.
In Greece there is no advertising for kids products from 7
to 22 h. An attempt to restrict advertising directed at children
in the US failed with reference to the First Amendment. In
Spain bans are also considered undemocratic.
and campaigns against advertising
in Lund, Sweden, saying "One Night
to critics, the total commercialization of all fields of society,
the privatization of public space, the acceleration of consumption
and waste of resources including the negative influence on
lifestyles and on the environment has not been noticed to
the necessary extent. The “hyper-commercialization of the
culture is recognized and roundly detested by the citizenry,
although the topic scarcely receives a whiff of attention
in the media or political culture”. “The greatest damage done
by advertising is precisely that it incessantly demonstrates
the prostitution of men and women who lend their intellects,
their voices, their artistic skills to purposes in which they
themselves do not believe, and …. that it helps to shatter
and ultimately destroy our most precious non-material possessions:
the confidence in the existence of meaningful purposes of
human activity and respect for the integrity of man.” “The
struggle against advertising is therefore essential if we
are to overcome the pervasive alienation from all genuine
human needs that currently plays such a corrosive role in
our society. But in resisting this type of hyper-commercialism
we should not be under any illusions. Advertising may seem
at times to be an almost trivial of omnipresent aspect of
our economic system. Yet, as economist A. C. Pigou pointed
out, it could only be ‘removed altogether’ if ‘conditions
of monopolistic competition’ inherent to corporate capitalism
were removed. To resist it is to resist the inner logic of
capitalism itself, of which it is the pure expression.”
pollution, much of it in the form of advertising, is an issue
in all the world's large cities. But what is pollution to
some is a vibrant part of a city's fabric to others. New York
City without Times Square's huge digital billboards or Tokyo
without the Ginza's commercial panorama is unthinkable. Piccadilly
Circus would be just a London roundabout without its signage.
Still, other cities, like Moscow, have reached their limit
and have begun to crack down on over-the-top outdoor advertising.”
“Many communities have chosen to regulate billboards to protect
and enhance their scenic character. The following is by no
means a complete list of such communities, but it does give
a good idea of the geographic diversity of cities, counties
and states that prohibit new construction of billboards. Scenic
America estimates the nationwide total of cities and communities
prohibiting the construction of new billboards to be at least
1500. A number of States in the US prohibit all billboards:
- Removed all billboards in 1970s
- Removed all billboards in 1920s
- Removed all billboards in 1970s and early 80s
- State referendum passed in 1998 prohibits billboards
two years ago the city of São Paulo, Brazil, ordered the
downsizing or removal of all billboards and most other forms
of commercial advertising in the city.”
appliances, such as Spam filters, TV-Zappers, Ad-Blockers
for TVs and stickers on mail boxes: “No Advertising” and an
increasing number of court cases indicate a growing interest
of people to restrict or rid themselves of unwelcome advertising.
protection associations, environment protection groups, globalization
opponents, consumption critics, sociologists, media critics,
scientists and many others deal with the negative aspects
of advertising. “Antipub” in France, “subvertising”,
culture jamming and adbusting
have become established terms in the anti-advertising community.
On the international level globalization
critics such as Naomi Klein
and Noam Chomsky are also renown
media and advertising critics. These groups criticize the
complete occupation of public spaces, surfaces, the airwaves,
the media, schools etc. and the constant exposure of almost
all senses to advertising messages, the invasion of privacy,
and that only few consumers are aware that they themselves
are bearing the costs for this to the very last penny. Some
of these groups, such as the ‘The Billboard Liberation Front
Creative Group’ in San Francisco
or Adbusters in Vancouver, Canada,
have manifestos. Grassroots organizations campaign against
advertising or certain aspects of it in various forms and
strategies and quite often have different roots. Adbusters,
for example contests and challenges the intended meanings
of advertising by subverting them and creating unintended
meanings instead. Other groups, like ‘Illegal Signs Canada’
try to stem the flood of billboards by detecting and reporting
ones that have been put up without permit. Examples for various
groups and organizations in different countries are ‘L'association
Résistance à l'Agression Publicitaire’ in France, where also
media critic Jean Baudrillard
is a renown author. The ‘Anti Advertising Agency’ works with
parody and humour to raise awareness about advertising. and
‘Commercial Alert’ campaigns for the protection of children,
family values, community, environmental integrity and democracy.
Media literacy organisations
aim at training people, especially children in the workings
of the media and advertising in their programmes. In the US,
for example, the ‘Media Education Foundation’ produces and
distributes documentary films and other educational resources.
‘MediaWatch’, a Canadian non-profit women's organization works
to educate consumers about how they can register their concerns
with advertisers and regulators. The Canadian ‘Media Awareness
Network/Réseau éducation médias’ offers one of the world’s
most comprehensive collections of media education and Internet
literacy resources. Its member organizations represent the
public, non-profit but also private sectors. Although it stresses
its independence it accepts financial support from Bell Canada,
CTVGlobeMedia, CanWest, TELUS and S-VOX.
the increasing criticism of advertising aiming at children
media literacy organizations are also initiated and funded
by corporations and the advertising business themselves. In
the US ‘The Advertising Educational Foundation’ was created
in 1983 supported by ad agencies, advertisers and media companies.
It is the “advertising industry's provider and distributor
of educational content to enrich the understanding of advertising
and its role in culture, society and the economy” sponsored
for example by American Airlines, Anheuser-Busch, Campbell
Soup, Coca-Cola, Colgate-Palmolive, Walt Disney, Ford, General
Foods, General Mills, Gillette, Heinz, Johnson & Johnson,
Kellogg, Kraft, Nestle, Philip Morris, Quaker Oats, Nabisco,
Schering, Sterling, Unilever, Warner Lambert, advertising
agencies like Saatchi & Saatchi Compton and media companies
like American Broadcasting Companies, CBS, Capital Cities
Communications, Cox Enterprises, Forbes, Hearst, Meredith,
The New York Times, RCA/NBC, Reader’s Digest, Time, Washington
Post, just to mention a few. Canadian businesses established
‘Concerned Children's Advertisers’ in 1990 “to instill confidence
in all relevant publics by actively demonstrating our commitment,
concern, responsibility and respect for children”. Members
are CanWest, Corus, CTV, General Mills, Hasbro, Hershey’s,
Kellogg’s, Loblaw, Kraft, Mattel, McDonald’s, Nestle, Pepsi,
Walt Disney, Weston as well as almost 50 private broadcast
partners and others. Concerned Children's Advertisers was
example for similar organizations in other countries like
‘Media smart’ in the United Kingdom with offspring in Germany,
France, the Netherlands and Sweden. New Zealand has a similar
business-funded programme called ‘Willie Munchright’. “While
such interventions are claimed to be designed to encourage
children to be critical of commercial messages in general,
critics of the marketing industry suggest that the motivation
is simply to be seen to address a problem created by the industry
itself, that is, the negative social impacts to which marketing
activity has contributed…. By contributing media literacy
education resources, the marketing industry is positioning
itself as being part of the solution to these problems, thereby
seeking to avoid wide restrictions or outright bans on marketing
communication, particularly for food products deemed to have
little nutritional value directed at children…. The need to
be seen to be taking positive action primarily to avert potential
restrictions on advertising is openly acknowledged by some
sectors of the industry itself…. Furthermore, Hobbs (1998)
suggests that such programs are also in the interest of media
organizations that support the interventions to reduce criticism
of the potential negative effects of the media themselves.”
as revenue and control
interest groups suggest that “access to the mental space targeted
by advertisers should be taxed, in that at the present moment
that space is being freely taken advantage of by advertisers
with no compensation paid to the members of the public who
are thus being intruded upon. This kind of tax would be a
Pigovian tax in that it would
act to reduce what is now increasingly seen as a public nuisance.
Efforts to that end are gathering more momentum, with Arkansas
and Maine considering bills to implement such a taxation.
Florida enacted such a tax in 1987 but was forced to repeal
it after six months, as a result of a concerted effort by
national commercial interests, which withdrew planned conventions,
causing major losses to the tourism industry, and cancelled
advertising, causing a loss of 12 million dollars to the broadcast
US, for example, advertising is tax deductible and suggestions
for possible limits to the advertising tax deduction are met
with fierce opposition from the business sector, not to mention
suggestions for a special taxation. In other countries, advertising
at least is taxed in the same manner services are taxed and
in some advertising is subject to special taxation although
on a very low level. In many cases the taxation refers especially
to media with advertising (e.g. Austria, Italy, Greece, Netherlands,
Tax on advertising in European countries:
Advertising or billboard tax (taxe d'affichage or aanplakkingstaks)
on public posters depending on size and kind of paper as
well as on neon signs
Tax on television commercials (taxe sur la publicité télévisée)
based on the cost of the advertising unit
Municipal tax on acoustic and visual kinds of advertisements
within the municipality (imposta communale sulla publicità)
and municipal tax on signs, posters and other kinds of advertisements
(diritti sulle pubbliche offisioni), the tariffs of which
are under the jurisdiction of the municipalities
Advertising tax (reclamebelastingen) with varying tariffs
on certain advertising measures (excluding ads in newspapers
and magazines) which can be levied by municipalities depending
on the kind of advertising (billboards, neon signs etc.)
Municipal announcement levies on advertising through writing,
pictures or lights in public areas or publicly accessible
areas with varying tariffs depending on the fee, the surface
or the duration of the advertising measure as well as advertising
tariffs on paid ads in printed media of usually 10% of the
Advertising tax (reklamskatt) on ads and other kinds of
advertising (billboards, film, television, advertising at
fairs and exhibitions, flyers) in the range of 4% for ads
in newspapers and 11% in all other cases. In the case of
flyers the tariffs are based on the production costs, else
on the fee
Municipalities can tax advertising measures in their territory
with a rather unimportant taxes and fees of various kinds.
book “When Corporations
Rule the World” US author and globalization
criticDavid Korten even
advocates a 50% tax on advertising to counterattack what he
calls "an active propaganda machinery controlled by the world's
largest corporations” which “constantly reassures us that
consumerism is the path to happiness,
governmental restraint of market excess is the cause of our
distress, and economic globalization is both a historical
inevitability and a boon to the human species."
US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising
blight the public realm. As long ago as the 1960s in the US
there were attempts to ban billboard advertising in the open
countryside. Cities such as São Paulo
have introduced an outright ban with London also having specific
legislation to control unlawful displays.
have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest
by regulating the content and the influence of advertising.
Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising
imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising
to children under 12 imposed by the Swedish government in
1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts
originating within the country, it has been weakened by the
European Court of Justice,
which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign
programming, including those from neighboring countries or
and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how
much) advertising to children should be regulated. This debate
was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser
Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast
food advertising that targets children was an important
factor in the epidemic of childhood
obesity in the United States.
Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and many European countries,
the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation.
Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a
code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold.
The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising
is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'. Some self-regulatory
organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent,
with the intent of upholding the standards or codes like the
Standards Authority in the UK.
UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of
billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning
system. Currently the display of an advertisement without
consent from the Planning Authority is a criminal offense
liable to a fine of £2,500 per offence. All of the major outdoor
billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature.
many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation
as intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil.
Therefore, they employ a wide-variety of linguistic devices
to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing English words in
bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the
Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law
limiting the use of English in French advertising). The advertisement
of controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms are
subject to government regulation in many countries. For instance,
the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries
to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health
hazards of their products. Linguistic variation is often used
by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of
has gone through five major stages of development: domestic,
export, international, multi-national, and global. For global
advertisers, there are four, potentially competing, business
objectives that must be balanced when developing worldwide
advertising: building a brand while speaking with one voice,
developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximising
local effectiveness of ads, and increasing the company’s speed
of implementation. Born from the evolutionary stages of global
marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different
approaches to the development of global advertising executions:
exporting executions, producing local executions, and importing
ideas that travel.
research is key to determining the success of an ad in any
country or region. The ability to identify which elements
and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is
how economies of scale are maximised. Once one knows what
works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any
other market. Market research
measures, such as Flow of Attention, Flow of Emotion and branding
moments provide insight into what is working in an ad in any
country or region because the measures are based on the visual,
not verbal, elements of the ad.
dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities.
Popup, Flash, banner,
Popunder, advergaming, and email
advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now
last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising
grew by 18.1% and 9.2% respectively. Older media advertising
saw declines: -10.1% (TV), -11.7% (radio), -14.8% (magazines)
and -18.7% (newspapers ).
to record shows on digital
video recorders (such as TiVo) allow users to record the
programs for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward
through commercials. Additionally, as more seasons of pre-recorded
box sets are offered for sale of television
programs; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However,
the fact that these sets are sold, means the company
will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets.
To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product
placement on TV shows like Survivor.
since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people
may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later
or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has
not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet
to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or
significant trend regarding future of advertising is the growing
importance of the niche market
using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet
and the theory of The
Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability
to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient
way to deliver a message was to blanket the largest mass
market audience possible. However, usage tracking, customer
profiles and the growing popularity of niche content brought
about by everything from blogs to social
networking sites, provide advertisers with audiences that
are smaller but much better defined, leading to ads that are
more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies'
marketing products. Among others, Comcast
Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method
in their video on demand menus.
These advertisements are targeted to a specific group and
can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular
business or practice at any time, right from their home. This
causes the viewer to become proactive and actually choose
what advertisements they want to view.
realm of advertising
agencies, continued industry diversification has seen
observers note that “big global clients don't need big global
agencies any more”. This trend is reflected by the growth
of non-traditional agencies in various global markets, such
as Canadian business TAXI
and SMART in Australia
and has been referred to as "a revolution in the ad world".
advertising, companies hold public competitions to create
ads for their product, the best one of which is chosen for
widespread distribution with a prize given to the winner(s).
During the 2007 Super Bowl, PepsiCo
held such a contest for the creation of a 30-second television
ad for the Doritos brand of chips,
offering a cash prize to the winner. Chevrolet
held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs.
This type of advertising, however, is still in its infancy.
It may ultimately decrease the importance of advertising agencies
by creating a niche for independent freelancers.[citation
education has become widely popular with bachelor, master
and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis.
A surge in advertising interest is typically attributed to
the strong relationship advertising plays in cultural and
technological changes, such as the advance of online social
networking. A unique model for teaching advertising is the
agency, where advertising students create campaigns for
real companies. Organizations such as American
Advertising Federation and AdU Network partner established
companies with students to create these campaigns.
research is a specialized form of research that works to improve
the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. It entails
numerous forms of research which employ different methodologies.
Advertising research includes pre-testing (also known as copy
testing) and post-testing of ads and/or campaigns—pre-testing
is done before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform
and post-testing is done after an ad airs to determine the
in-market impact of the ad or campaign on the consumer. Continuous
and the Communicus System are competing
examples of post-testing advertising research types.
LEAD GENERATION: Lead generation
(commonly abbreviated as lead-gen) is a marketing term that
refers to the creation or generation of prospective consumer
interest or inquiry into a business' products or services.
Leads can be generated for a variety of purposes - list building,
e-newsletter list acquisition or for winning customers.
is a sign-up for an advertiser offer that includes contact
information and in some cases, demographic information. There
are two types of leads in the lead generation market: sales
leads and marketing leads.
is the pinnacle activity involved in selling products or services
in return for money or other compensation. It is an act
of completion of a commercial activity. A sale is completed
by the seller or the provider of the goods or services to
an acquisition or appropriation or request followed by the
passing of title (property or ownership) in the item and the
application and due settlement of a price, the douche of or
any claim upon the item. The purchaser, though a party to
the sale, does not execute the sale, only the seller does
that. To be precise the sale completes prior to the payment
and gives rise to the obligation of payment. If the seller
completes the first two above stages (consent and passing
ownership) of the sale prior to settlement of the price, the
sale is still valid and gives rise to an obligation to pay.
is the process by which companies determine what products
or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy
to use in sales, communications and business development.
an integrated process through which companies create value
for customers and build strong customer relationships in order
to capture value from customers in return.
is used to identify the customer, to keep the customer and
to satisfy the customer. With the customer as the focus
of its activities, it can be concluded that marketing management
is one of the major components of business management. The
evolution of marketing was caused due to mature markets and
overcapacities in the last decades. Companies then shifted
the focus from production to the customer in order to stay
profitable. The term marketing concept holds that achieving
organizational goals depends on knowing the needs and wants
of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions.
that in order to satisfy its organizational objectives, an
organization should anticipate the needs and wants of consumers
and satisfy these more effectively than competitors
Do Some Lead Generation Machines Work? There are agencies
that specialize in providing qualified leads to businesses.
The process of lead generation is actually very easy. An agency
develops a website or partnerships with several websites in
which they promote and advertise your product or service.
A consumer finds these directories or informational sites
and they are able to complete an online quote request form.
This form is submitted to the agency. The buyers information
is verified and matched to the appropriate providers. These
matched leads are then sent via email to the prospective providers
with full contact information and purchasing requirements.
Business Industries use Lead Generation? Lead generation
could work for just about any business, but most industries
using this type of marketing include insurance agencies, education
institutions, office suppliers, and furniture stores. Trends
show that lead generation will become even more popular in
the future, especially for service oriented businesses.
generation is one of the most important factors in the business
of a product. Because without good number of leads, good
number of sales is impossible. Various methods are used for
this purpose and these days B2B lead generation or business
to business lead generation is very popular. This is business
to business advertising that helps a lot in lead generation.
These days almost all online ventures are using these techniques
to promote their products and services. Suppose you are selling
greeting cards online and you are not getting good response.
In that case you can take the services of an online gift shop.
This is how you can promote. Its very beneficial and at the
same time easy to practice.
uses your services or buys your products and likes them, they're
much more likely to tell their friends and cause your sales
to grow. However, if you don't generate new leads, your customer
base will stagnate and never grow.
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